The Red Queen

 

Ridley, Matt. The Red Queen.  “Polygamy and the Nature of Men”. 1995.

 

Introduction

 

The connection between sex and power is, in fact, a long one.  Kings from Indian and West African Tribes would keep large numbers of women and use them for their own pleasures.  Although today, tactics for reproduction are not as extreme, the general motives are still present.

Mankind, An Animal

 

       "Evolution is more about reproduction of the fittest than survival of the fittest” (pg 2).  All creatures are a result of battles between genes, between members of the same species, etc.  Success in one generation ensures that the enemies of the next generation are more fit, and consequently better fighters.  Along with the notion of evolution, is human behavior and how no nature can exist without nurture.  Some scientists think that evolution has nothing to tell them -- that human culture does not reflect human nature, but the opposite.

The Point of Marriage and When Males Pounce and Females Flirt

      

Marriage is also an important issue in human culture.  Basically, women are meant as "vehicles" that can carry genes into the next generation, while men produce sperm that can turn eggs into embryos.  The text talks about the 5 different ways in which humanity fails.  These ways explain about how humans and animals, alike, are studied, in order to help us better understand our mating system.  We learn that most cultures are monogamous.  In human culture, males are the seducers, while females are the seduced.  In fact, in regards to marriage proposals, the text says, "In no society on earth do they usually come from the woman or her family" (p178).  Women may flirt, but men will pounce.  Sociologists have, as a result come up with reasons why men pounce and women flirt.
      

Feminism and Phalaropes

 

There are some exceptions to polygamy. For instance, seahorse females have a sort of penis that she uses to inject eggs into the males body. There are also exceptions and role reversals in phalaropes. A polygamous human society is beneficial for men, where a monogamous one is a victory for females. The idea of nature verses nurture is also discussed. Things such as hate and violence can be countered by the right kind of nurture.
      

The meaning of homosexual promiscuity

 

Male homosexual were far more promiscuous than heterosexual males before the outbreak of AIDS.  A study that was conducted in the San Francisco areas found that “75 percent had had more than one hundred partners; 25 percent had had more than one thousand.” (p182)  Advocates for homosexuality say that this promiscuity is an effect of society’s disapproval of their sexual orientation.  With this promiscuity infidelity plays a huge factor.  Infidelity is a bigger problem in homosexual male marriages than in heterosexual marriages.  But Lesbians on the other hand tend to have sex with random partners far less frequently and instead form partnerships for many years. Compared to gay men, most lesbians are said to have fewer than ten partners in their lifetimes.

 

Harems and Wealth

 

The game theory which is a technique used in economics, is used in studying different mating systems.  Game theory identifies that the outcome of an operation depends on what other people are doing.  From this technique the question of why different animals have such different mating systems was answered.  But we are going to focus on how this plays out in humans.  Both monogamy and polygamy can be seen in humans.  Here is an excerpt of how each one of these could work,

            “We became monogamous because the advantage that a junior father could supply in feeding the family outweighed the disadvantage in not being mated to the chief.  Or we became polygamous because of the discrepancies in wealth between males, “ Which woman would not rather be John Kennedy’s third wife than Bozo the Clown’s first?” said one (female) evolutionist.” (p 185)

            Do the first wives usually object to having to share their husband with other women?  In some situations they do.  The husband either has to force her to accept the arrangement or he must bribe her to accept it.  “In parts of Africa it is written into the law that the first wife inherits 70 percent of the husband’s wealth.” (p186). 

            There are four basic commandments of the mating system theory.  First, by choosing monogamy, females do better and faithful males are the result. Second, the first will not happen if men can persuade them.  Third, by choosing already mated males the females can do no worse.  Fourth, unless the already mated females can prevent their males from getting another partner, monogamy will be the result.  But to be realistic almost all mammals fall far above the polygamy threshold, which makes these four commandments irrelevant. 

 

Why Play Sexual Monopoly?

 

            Zoologists in the 1970s coined the tern “socioecology” while investigating different species’ mating systems.  In two studies, one on antelope and one on primates, concludes that the mating system would be predicted from its ecology.  For example, “Small forest antelopes are selective feeders and as a consequence, are solitary and monogamous. Middle-sized, open-woodland ones live in small groups and form harems.” (p186)

            Another factor of how different species mate is their history.  A species could have the same ecology and produce two different mating systems.  The answer that most biologists come up with is that they have different histories.

 

Hunters and Gatherers

           

For humans when we are looking at our mating systems the best place to look is our natural habitat and our past.  An example of this is that in any modern human today the brain designated for hunting and gathering resides. 

            Don Symons coined the term “environment of evolutionary adaptedness” (EEA).  This refers to humans that lived millions of years ago.  They hunted food, gathered berries, and very friendly with people in their tribe but not with other tribes.  The combination of the time and place is why Symons used that phrase.  The book goes on the explain that, “People cannot be adapted to the present or the future; they can only be adapted to the past.” (p191)  Others disagree with this saying that there was no consistent EEA.  One argument against the EEA is that one of its main parts is still with us today, the other people.  What socioecology says is that our mating system is determined by other people not our ecology.  The second argument against the EEA was that humans were designed to be adaptable.  Mankind has developed many different mating systems, with one for every kind of circumstance. 

 

Money and Sex

 

            While reading this section on money and sex, the author stated that men will forever be obsessed with the idea of gaining power.  There is something about men that makes them want to take advantage of all opportunities for polygamy.  During the Pleistocene period, not many men had the opportunity for polygamy.  In hunting and gathering societies, polygamy was present, but it was based on luck, and how much success that you had within your society.  In our society today, most men are monogamous, many are promiscuous and adulterous, but few men manage to be polygamous. 

            In hunting and gathering societies, men shared their food.  This worked out well because no matter how lucky someone was, his neighbor might be luckier while he was hunting that day.  Therefore, everyone was considered equal.  There was no fight for power because everyone had to rely on other people.  Agriculture ended this equity and allowed men to be polygamous.  Farming allowed people to gather more grain and domestic animals, which was a form of wealth, and decreased the necessity of sharing with one another because no one needed favors in return.  The best farmer became the richest man and as a result he could acquire more wives.  This led to the accumulation of wealth, which began to equal power, and in some societies, the richest or most powerful man could have over 100 wives.  Wealthy men were able to gain this power because often times, other men would help them on a “you help me, I’ll help you” basis.  Strength was no longer necessary to win power, instead “wealth, cunning, and political skill led to power among men” (p196) because it led to the ability to form alliances.

 

Highly Sexed Emperors

 

            In late 1970, an anthropologist named Mildred Dickemann did a series of investigations to find out if the predictions that evolutionists were making for animals were also true for human beings.  What she found was that people in Oriental societies saw reproduction as their purpose for existence, persuading women to attempt to marry into the highest status, and men to have as many wives as possible.  One example is in India, where mating is kind of like a trade off.   In this society, Male power and resources are traded for a woman’s reproductive success. 

            At about the same time, a man named John Hartung hypothesized that a rich man in a polygamous society would be more likely to make his son the heir to all of his power and riches over any daughters that he may have.  This is because a man has more reproductive potential in polygamous societies than women do.  If their son becomes rich and powerful, he can have many wives, but a daughter on the other hand can only have one husband.  Even if a daughter were to have more than one husband she would not be able to increase her reproductive potential.  This means that polygamous societies almost always have male-biased inheritance. 

            In the mid 1980’s Laura Betzig wanted to investigate the idea that people are sexually adapted to take advantage of whatever situation they come across.  This means that men would use their power and riches to gain sexual power.  In other words, the more wealth and power that a man has, the better his reproductive success will be.  In Western societies today, this is definitely not always true, but in other societies in the past, her hypothesis was proven again and again. 

            Polygamy was evident in all of the early civilizations, including Babylon, Egypt, China, Inca Peru, Aztec Mexico, and India.  All of the emperors in these six civilizations had very large harems.  They also all had very large numbers of women living within the harems who were expected to breed the emperor’s children.  Some of these emperors were even told when and how many times a day they were allowed to breed with the women.  They wanted to preserve the amount of sperm that the emperors used a day to ensure the emperor’s best reproductive success.  Some of the emperors actually complained about their sexual duties.  Women were a kind of reward for men with the most power.  They were up there with things such as “servants, palaces, gardens, music, silk, rich food, and spectacular sports” (p199).  The main thing that Betzig found was that not only were all of the emperors in the harems polygamous, but they also used many of the same tactics to increase their reproductive success.  The emperors were more interested in having as many children as possible, than actually having sex.

            In Rome, emperors had both monogamous and polygamous relationships.  They had one wife, but they had the opportunity to deflower as many young women as they wanted to.  In this society, the emperors had both male and female slaves.  The male slaves were not allowed to copulate with anyone.  They were forced to remain celibate.  Women slaves on the other hand were not forced to be celibate, but they were required to be virgins.  The emperor could them copulate with them whenever he wanted to.  Many of these young female slaves were often freed after some time.  It is suspected that they were freed because the females became impregnated, and as a result the Roman nobles needed free their illegitimate sons and daughters. 

            When Betzig looked at Medieval Christianity, she found out that although on the surface their society seemed to be monogamous, polygamy continued to secretly thrive.  The new harem consisted of all of the women who worked in the castles whose size was dependent on wealth. 

 

The Rewards of Violence

 

            Sexual rewards often caused violence within societies.  This is where the Christian ideals about sex came about.  The church noticed that sex lead to violence, and as a result sex was seen as sinful.  One example is what happened on the Pitcairn Islands.  Fifteen men and thirteen women landed on the island, and ten years later there was one man and ten women still surviving.  The remaining survivors said that one died, one committed suicide, and the other twelve were murdered.  This was all a result of sexual competition.  Sexual competition is not only seen in humans, but has also been noticed in apes and chimpanzees.  Chimps have been seen going into other territories, killing the males, and taking the young females to join the victors.  Their reward is inevitability sex.  This trait found in chimpanzees is also seen in remote tribes in which men will act in the same way.  In most studies done on societies before national government, it was estimated that one quarter of all men were killed by other men, where sex is the dominant reason.   This violence caused by sex, is still being seen in wars today, where rape is very common.

 

Monogamous Democrats

 

            No body really knows why, but polygamy has become almost inexistent in Western societies today.  Over the past few centuries it has died out, and there is no logical explanation why.  It seems like we have gone in a huge circle.  Our civilization is more like the Pleistocene period where men had one or two faithful wives and a few affairs.  Today a man can hope for one good wife who is traded in every once and a while, and a good-looking mistress.  But throughout all of time there has always been monogamous core.  Even the most powerful people usually had one Queen and many women on the side.      

 

 

 

 

Making Sense of Sex

 

Barash, David P. and Judith Eve Lipton. Making Sense of Sex. “Brain”. 1997.

 

Intro

Our brains are the most important part of being human.  While the brain is a major influence in sex, sex is also a huge influence on the brain and likewise operates differently in males and females.

How Genes and Hormones Influence Sex

There is little difference between males and females -- only the Y chromosome dictates the sex of an embryo.  "Hormones are the enforcers of gender (174)."  All one needs to become a normal male or female is a hormonal pull in one direction.  The testes produce testosterone for males, while the ovaries and the hypothalamus produce female hormones.

As the Brain Goes, So Goes Behavior

The same hormones that determine gender also influence the growth and patterns of an embryos brain.  The body, brain, and behavior are all linked.  The process of differentiation is determined by two periods for secretion of sex hormones: "the first phase, when the embryo is first bathed in hormones, is followed by a second phase, which occurs at puberty (176)."  These phases act on the human brain by exposing and then developing photographic film.

The Power of Male Hormones

Male hormones produce a male brain.  Spotted hyenas are talked about in the context that even female hyenas act and even have many male characteristics.  They have a fully developed penis and scrotum.  This is an example of prenatal masculinization.  "Male hormones determine both anatomical and behavioral sex differences...(177)."

When the Dose is Wrong

Here we focus on defects in hormones and how individuals are affected.  Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is where, in a mild case, a baby girl is born with external genitals that look male.  She is still genetically XX though.  They act as tomboys in many cases.  In more extreme cases, the child is reared as a normal boy, but later on will need help from a doctor, since the ""boy" is not developing into a man (180)."  Despite this hormonal defect, one should take into account, before jumping to conclusions, that in many children some degree of tomboyishness is perfectly normal.

 

When Brains and Bodies Don’t Match

 

There are several known sexual disorders, which explain how brains and bodies don’t always match up.  In the 1950s and 1960s physicians found that women with low levels of the female hormone progesterone were not able to carry their babies to term.  So they were administered DES which is a form of progesterone and it increased the women’s chances of carry out the pregnancy to full term.  But what the physicians did not know was the side effects DES would have.  Girls who had been exposed to DES in the womb turned out to be tomboys, were infertile and were more likely to suffer from vaginal cancer.  Boys on the other hand avoided the rough and tumble that other boys enjoy and were seen to be less assertive.  The DES that was in their systems reduced the normal relationship between testosterone and the central nervous system.

            Another syndrome is androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS).  “This disorder arises when male embryos have a biochemical anomaly that renders them insensitive to male sex hormones” (p181).  The body is secreting the normal amounts of androgens but the body is not responding to them.  The male who is genetically XY develops to look like a female on the outside, but testes remain on the inside.  The only physical difference is that the females may be slightly taller than other females.  They are also said to be more feminine that most females.  Most are so feminine that they choose to have the testes removed and have a vagina constructed.

            Another condition is 5-alpha-reductase deficiency syndrome (5ARDS).  This disorder is where a person is genetically male but on the outside is entirely female.  The only difference between 5ARDS and AIS is that when the person hits puberty their testes appear and their bodies becomes definitely male.

 

When Chromosomes Get Mixed Up

 

            One syndrome known as Turner’s syndrome is where a female embryo inherits only one chromosome (XO).  These women are overly feminine but don’t have ovaries or other female reproductive organs.  Babies who experience Turner’s syndrome experience hyper-feminization of the brain.  This leads them to be overly obsessed with dolls, hate aggressive play and have a strong desire for marriage and to be a mother.

            Another chromosome error is what is called supermales.  This is where an individual has an extra Y chromosome, which makes their genetic makeup be XYY.  These men appear to be taller than average men, have lower IQs and are well represented in prisons. 

            A third chromosome difference is Klinefelter’s syndrome.  This is where women inherit a Y chromosome (XXY).  This makes them look male but they develop breasts at puberty, which leads them to problems with their sexual identity.  Treatment for this syndrome is to administer testosterone, but the right amount must be given or the child can become irritable or aggressive.

 

 

When Men and Women Think Differently

 

There are certain sex differences that keep reappearing.  For example males do constantly better than females on tests of spatial and mathematical ability.  Girls on the other hand do better in verbal ability and responsiveness to stimuli.  These are mostly just generalizations but it is true that girls and boys display different abilities.

 

Test Scores

 

Camilla Benbow and Julian Stanley conducted a study in which they looked at SAT math scores for both males and females.  The results were that boys do better than girls.  They received lots of criticism on this so they conducted the study again but this time with bigger numbers, and still got the same results.  It turns out that the average math scores are not all the different.  In actuality boys are just at the upper end of the curve but also at the lower extremes.  But girls are consistent and are average.

 

The World of Achievers

 

            Though women have higher verbal ability and responsiveness than men, throughout history, there have been many more males recognized for their talents and achievements.  If women were not so preoccupied by the duties of motherhood, these may be able to direct more time towards the utilization of their talents.  Yet if this were to happen, women would probably be looked upon as neglecting their families and home life.  Motherhood may be the cause of sensitivity in women.  They have to care for, and understand their infants without actually having to talk to them.  Differences in the brains of males and females may explain why men are more recognized for their achievements than women. 

            Women are more intuitive and less cognitive than men.  They are much more sensitive.  This may explain why men have more success.  Men are more aggressive and care less about what is going on around them.  Both characteristics are those that are seen in people who are dominant leaders.  One example is how “office employees fret over a casual remark made by the boss” (p190). 

 

Why Men Read Maps and Women ask for Directions

 

            Women are very focused on individual’s feelings and relationships.  They have high verbal and auditory skills.  Men have more spatial skills.  “Their greater aptitude for spatial relationships makes men more adroit at reading maps and perhaps at mathematical functions…” … “Women rely on landmarks for finding their way…” (p191).  Estrogen equals verbal ability, and testosterone equals spatial ability.  In a man or a woman, the presence of either increases the corresponding ability.

 

 

Inside the Brain

 

            On the surface, a man’s brain may appear bigger than a woman’s.  But in reality, it is all relative to their differences in body size.  The “female brain is not just a scaled down version of a man’s brain” (p193).  Women’s neurons are actually more densely organized than a man’s.  This could be important because neurons are what controls intellectual functioning.  In rats, the SDN (sexually dimorphic nucleus) of males is much bigger than the SDN of females.  In humans the INAH-3 is supposedly equal to the SND of rats.  When the brains of homosexual males were looked at, they found the INAH-3 to be about the same size as a female’s INAH-3.  They are still unsure of what exactly the INAH-3 does, but they do know that it is twice as big in a male’s brain than a female’s brain.  Among women, a homosexual male, a heterosexual male, and transsexuals there are big size differences in another part of the brain called the “central subdivision of the bed nucleus of the stria terminals” (195).

 

Using Our Heads

 

            Males are more “left brained” and females are more “right brained” (195).  The right side of the brain deals with visual and spatial functions, and the left side deals with verbal functions.  This may explain why men are not as verbal as women.  They are just not capable of having the same amount of intuition and verbal ability as a female.  Females also utilize more than just the right side of their brains.  Studies have shown that females use all different parts of their brain at once.  That is probably why they recover more quickly than men when it comes to head trauma.  Men are more likely to lose their verbal ability when they severely injure their brain.  Women’s brains are just “more specialized, especially in regards to language” (p196).  The difference between men and women’s brains shows that the brain can work in two different yet both very successful ways.

 

Uncertainties

 

The difference between a man a woman’s brain is largely due to the fact that woman are wired to be mothers.  Whether they actually become mothers or not, they are biologically predisposed to be a certain way.  Men are biologically predisposed to be aggressive and more sexual than women.  Whether or not they have a chance to act upon these instincts, they still have it wired in their brains somewhere.  These instincts do not always match up according to your sex.  The environment which a man or woman grows up in can reverse the aggressiveness or passiveness that they are predisposed to. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Red Queen

 

I.  Introduction

           A.  The Inca

                 1.  Sex was a regulated industry

                              a.  Atahualpa, the sun king, kept 1500 women in his "house of virgins" in

                                   his kingdom.

                              b.  women selected for their beauty and had to be around 8 years old, to

                                         ensure their virginity.

                                    c.  if a man violated one of Atahualpa’s women, he would be put to

                                         death

                                    d.  the village would be destroyed, etc.

           B.  West Africa kingdom
                 1.  thousands of women were kept in the king’s harem for his use.
           C.  The connection between sex and power is a long one.

 

     II.  Mankind, An Animal
           A.  Evolution is more about reproduction of the fittest than survival of the fittest.
                 1.  all creatures are a product of historical battles between genes and other genes,

                      between members of the same species, etc.
                              a.  battles are psychological
                              b.  never one, for success in one generation ensures that the foes of the

                                   next generation are fitter and fight harder.
           B.  We are not taught things such as anger or lust
                 1.  human nature
                 2.  no nature that exists without nurture
                              a.  every behavior is the product of an instinct trained by an experience.
           C.  some scientists think that evolution has nothing to tell them.
                 1.  human bodies are products of natural selection, while human minds are

                      behavior are products of culture.
                              a.  human culture does not reflect human nature, but the reverse.


III.  The Point Of Marriage
           A.  For a man, women are vehicles that can carry his genes into the next generation,

                 while for a woman men are sources of sperm that can turn eggs into embryos.
                 1.  one can exploit the other gender by rounding up many of them and persuade

                      them to mate with you, then deserting them.
                              a.  or one can find one person and share parenthood duties equally.
           B.  5 ways to find out where humanity falls
                 1.  study modern people directly and describe the mating system.
                              a.  answer is usually monogamous marriage.
                 2.  look at human history from the past and see what sexual arrangements are

                      typical of our species.
                 3.  look at people in simple, stone age technologies and see why they lived like

                      our ancestors lived long age.
                 4.  look at the apes and compare our behavior and anatomy with them.
                 5.  compare human with other animals that share similar social habits
                              a.  teaches we are designed for a system of monogamy plagued by

                                   adultery.
           C.  Only one polyandrous society on Earth
                 1. 
Tibet and consists of women who marry two or more bro’s at the same time,

                      in order to put together a family unit that is economically good in a harsh

                      land, where men herd yaks to support women.
           D.  Democracy tells us to live in monogamous societies, human do not seek this
                 1.  3/4 of tribal cultures are polygamous
                 2.  even in polygamous societies, men usually have only one wife, and women

                      have one husband.
                 3.  humans, overall, do what they want, and adapt their behavior to the present

                      opportunity.

IV.  When Males Pounce And Females Flirt
           A.  If males and females had their way
                 1.
  males -- women would live in harems like seals
                 2.  women -- men would be as faithful as an albatrosses
                 3.  males are seducers and females are the seduced.
           B.  in no society on earth do marriage proposals usually come from the woman
                 1.  woman may flirt, but men will pounce.
           C.  Women flirt and men pounce because of conditioning, according to sociologists.
                 1.  biologists explain why male animals are more ardent suitors than females

                      and why they are an exception to the rule.
                              a.  the gender that invests the most in taking care of the offspring, is the

                                   gender that has the least to gain from extra mating.
                              b.  a peacock rants a peahen one batch of sperm and nothing else.  He

                                   won’t protect and feed her, or bring up the chicks.  She does all the

                                   work.
                              c.  unequal bargain
                              d.  males like quantity, while females like quality.
           D.  Asymmetry between genders is relevant to the difference in the size of sperm

                 and egg.
                 1.  the most prolific males are far more successful than the least prolific males,

                      while in females it doesn’t matter.
                 2.  males are more likely to have lots of children, than women
                              a.  men who marry twice are more likely to bear 2 children by 2 wives,

                                   while women who marry twice aren’t as likely to bear children by both

                                   husbands.
           E.  Infidelity and prostitution are unique cases in polygamy in which no marriage

                 bond is formed.

V.  Feminism and Phalaropes
           A.  exceptions to polygamy
                 1.  seahorse females have a sort of penis that she uses to inject eggs into the

                      male’s body.
                 2.  Phalaropes and other seducer-female species
                              a.  males invest more time or energy in the care of the young, while

                                   females take initiative in courtship.
           B.  asymmetry is clear in humans
                 1.  "nine months of pregnancy set against 5 minutes of fun"
                 2.  polygamous human society is a  victory for men, where a monogamous one

                      is a victory for females.
           C.  Nature vs. nurture
                 1.  murder is "natural", in the sense that ape’s commit it regularly
                 2.  hate, violence, etc are less part of human nature, and can be countered by

                      the right kind of nurture.
                 3.  evolution does not lead to a utopia.
                              a.  leads to a land where what is best for one man, may not be best for

                                   another.

 

VI.  The meaning of homosexual promiscuity

           A.  Homosexual males are far more promiscuous than heterosexual males

                 1.  75% more than 100 partners

                 2.  25% more than 1,000 partners

           B.  Society’s disapproval

           C.  Infidelity

                 1.  bigger problem among homosexual males

                 2.  lesbians total contradiction to this

                              a.  fewer than 10 partners

 

VII.  Harems and Wealth

           A. Game Theory

                 1.  technique taken from economics

                 2.  outcome depends on what others are doing

                 3.  answered why there are different mating systems

                 4.  quote p185

           B.  Four basic commandments of the mating system theory

                 1.  monogamy- females do better and men are more faithful

                 2.  first one can not happen if men persuade women

                 3.  by choosing already mated males, females can do no worse

                 4.  already mated females persuade males from getting another partner =

                      monogamy

 

VIII.  Why play sexual monopoly?

           A.  term socioecology

                 1.  2 studies- one on antelope and one on primates

                 2.  concluded mating system would be predicted by ecology

           B.  Mating system from history

                 1.  same ecology = 2 diff mating systems

                 2.  answer= their histories

 

IX.  Hunters and Gatherers

           A.  natural habitat and past

                 1.  every human today has a brain of a hunter and gatherer

           B.  environment of evolutionary adaptedness” (EEA)

                 1.  humans that lived millions of years ago

                              a.  friendly with people of their own tribe but no with other tribes

                 2.  combo of time and place

           C.  Many disagree with EEA

                 1.  no consistent EEA

                 2.  main part of theory, other people, are still here today

                 3.  socioecology says mating system determined by other people not our

                      ecology

                 4.  humans designed to be adaptable

 

X.  Money and Sex

A.     Men are obsessed with the idea of gaining power

1.      This makes them want to take advantage of polygamy

2.      In hunting and gathering societies, polygamy was present, but it was based on luck, and how much success you had within your society…there was no fight for power…men shared everything

3.      Today most men are monogamous, many are promiscuous, but few manage to be polygamous

4.      Agriculture/Farming

a.       Increased wealth

b.      Led to the wealthiest (most powerful) man to have the most wives

 

XI.  Highly Sexed Emperors

            A.  Oriental societies saw reproduction as their purpose for existence, persuading women

                   to attempt to marry into the highest status, and men to have as many wives as

                   possible

                   1.  Male power and resources are traded for a woman’s reproductive success

B.     A rich man in a polygamous society is most likely to make his son (instead of daughter) heir to the wealth

1.      Males have more reproductive potential than women in polygamous societies

C.     Men use their power and riches to gain sexual power

1.      The more wealth and power a man has, the better his reproductive success

D.     In all of the early civilizations, Emperors had harems with large numbers of women living within them

1.      The women were used solely for breeding purposes

2.      Emperors were told when and where they could breed with the women

3.      Emperors were only interested in having a lot of children, they didn’t care about the sex

E.      In Rome Emperors had both monogamous and polygamous relationships

1.      They had a wife, but they could also deflower any other women they wanted

2.      Emperors had many women slaves who were required to remain celibate…the emperor could copulate with them at any time

 

XII.  The Rewards of Violence

            A.  Sexual rewards often caused violence within societies

                 1.  Christian ideals about sex came from this

                              a.  Sex is a sin

                              b.  Ex: Pitcairn Islands

 

XIII.  Monogamous Democrats

            A.  Polygamy has become almost inexistent in Western Societies today

                 1.  We have gone in a huge circle, and there is no logical explanation why

 

 

 

Making Sense of Sex

 

 

I.  Introduction:  The Brain
           A.  Brain = most important part of being human
                 1.  influences sex and, in turn, is influenced by sex

II.  How Genes and Hormones Influence Sex
           A.  Little difference between males and females
                 1.
  only Y chromosome dictates the sex of the embryo
           B.  Hormones are the enforcers of gender
                 1.  testosterone, for males, is produced by the testes
                 2.  female hormones are produced by the ovaries and the hypothalamus.

III.  As the Brain Goes, So Goes Behavior
           A.  Some hormones that determine gender also influences the growth patterns of an

                 embryos brain.
                 1.  body, brain, and behavior are linked
           B.  Process of differentiation is determined by 2 periods of secretion of sex hormones.
                 1.  embryo is bathed in hormones
                 2.  occurs during puberty
                              a.  these phases expose then develop photographic film.

IV.  The Power of Male Hormones
           A.  Male hormones produce a male brain
                 1.  Spotted hyenas
                              a.
  Females even have male characteristics -- fully developed penis and

                                   scrotum.
                              b.  Prenatal masculinization. 
                              c.  Male hormones determine both anatomical and behavioral sex differences.

V.  When the Dose is Wrong
           A.  Defects in hormones
                 1.
  Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)
                              a.
  in mild cases a baby girl is born with external genitals that look male.
                              b.  Genetically XX.
                              c.  Act as tomboys.
                              d.  In more extreme cases, the child is reared as a normal boy, but later on in

                                   puberty need help from a doctor, since the "boy" is not developing into a

                                   man.
                 2.  Despite the hormonal defect, one should take into account that for many children,

                      some degree of tomboyishness is normal.

 

VI. When brains and bodies don’t match

           A.  Can’t carry babies to term

                 1.  Females have no levels of progesterone

                              a.  Administered DES

                              b.  Increased chance to carry baby to full term

                 2.  Side effects

                              a.  Girls became tomboys, infertile, vaginal cancer

                              b.  Boys avoided rough play and were less assertive

           B.  AIS (androgen insensitivity syndrome)

                 1.  Males insensitive to male sex hormones

                 2.  Body secretes right amount of androgens but body does not respond to them

                 3.  Male develops looking like a female.

                 4.  More feminine than most females

           C.  5 ARDS (5-alpha-reductase deficiency syndrome)

                 1.  Genetically male but outside totally female

                 2.  Person hits puberty testes appear

                 3.  Bodies become male

 

VII.  When chromosomes get mixed up

           A.  Turner’s syndrome

                 1.  XO

                 2.  Overly feminine with no ovaries or other reproductive organs

                 3.  Babies experience hyper-feminization

                 4.  Overly obsessed with dolls, hate aggressive play, strong desire for marriage and

      motherhood.

           B.  supermales

                 1.  Extra y- XXY

                 2.  Taller

                 3.  Lower IQs

                 4.  Lots in prison

           C.  Klinefelter’s syndrome

                 1.  Women inherit Y chromosome (XXY)

                 2.  Look male but develop breasts at puberty

                 3.  Leads to sexual identity problems

                 4.  Administer testosterone

                 5.  Can lead to irritability or aggression

 

VIII.  When men and women think differently

           A. Males do better on spatial and mathematical abilities

           B. Girls do better in verbal ability and responsiveness to stimuli

 

IX.  Test Scores

           A.  Camilla Benbow and Julian Stanley study

           B.  Looked at SAT math scores for males and females

           C.  Lots of criticism so they had to do it again

           D.  Same results both times---males are better at math

           E.  Turns out average scores are the same…males are at upper end and lower extremes

           F.  Girls are average

 

X.  The World of Achievers

           A. Women are superior to men in verbal ability and responsiveness to stimuli

                 1. They have not been recognized for their achievement as much as men

                 2.  Women haven’t been given the same opportunities as males

                              a.  More male artists, authors, composers, roles models, etc.

                              b.  Motherhood is one explanation

                              c.  Another explanation males are usually pushy/ aggressive which leads to

                                  dominance

                              d.  Males are more competitive

                 3.  Females are more cognitive and intuitive than males

                              a.  Women are more sensitive

                              b.  Men are more oblivious to what’s going on

 

XI.  Why Men Read Maps and Women Ask for Directions

           A.  Men score higher on tests involving spatial skills, and women score higher on verbal

                and auditory capabilities

                 1.  Men are more likely to read and navigate by using maps = spatial skills

                 2.  Women are more likely to use landmarks and ask for directions

           B.  Testosterone influences spatial ability, and Estrogen influences verbal ability,

                 memory, and manual dexterity

 

XII.  Inside the Brain

           A.  Man’s brain is bigger than a female’s brain

                 1.  All relative to body size

           B.  Woman’s brain is not just a scaled down version of a man’s brain”

                 1. Same # of neurons, just more densely organized in women

                              a.  Neurons control intellectual functioning

                 2. The brains differ when it comes to reproductive success

                              a.  Ex: the part of the brain that controls signaling in songbirds is much larger

                                  in males than in females

           C.  Sexually dimorphic nucleus

                 1. Twice as big in male rats than female rats

                              a.  Ex: add testosterone to female rats equals male copulatory behavior, and

                                   visa versa for male rats

           D. INAH-3

                 1.  Equivalent of sexually dimorphic nucleus in humans

                 2.  Twice as big in males than females

                              a.  In homosexual males it looked like that of a female

                 3.  Still unsure of function

           E.  Central subdivision of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis”

                 1.  Huge differences in size of this region between men and women

                              a.  Heterosexual and Homosexual Men = avg. 2.6 cubic millimeters

                              b.  Females = avg. 1.73 cubic millimeters

                              c.  Transsexuals = avg. 1.3 cubic millimeters

 

XIII.  Using Our Heads

           A.  Males and females use their brains differently

                 1.  Males are “left brained”, females are “right brained”

                              a.  Left brain controls verbal tasks

                              b.  Right brain controls visualizing or manipulating objects

                 2.  Women’s brains are more specialized/less limited and Men’s brains are limited to

                      one task or another

                              a.  Women have more neurons available to connect words with feelings

                              b.  Women recover more quickly from injury to the brain

c.       There are two different ways for the human brain to arrive at the same

       result

                              d.  Men have better mathematical skills

                              e.  The male brain is less predisposed than the female brain to verbal

                                   communication…they may just be “without words for feeling”

 

XIV.  Uncertainties

           A.  Biological Predispositions

                 1.  Females predisposed to motherhood

                              a.  Even if they do not become mothers, their brains still think in a nurturing,

                                   intuitive manner

                 2.  Male brains predisposed to aggressiveness and sexual avidity

                 3.  Environmental factors can affect these predispositions

                              a.  The environment in which someone lives in can affect their brain

                              b.  Men can be sensitive, and women can be aggressive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Polygamy and the Nature of Men

Chapter 6

“The Red Queen”

Matt Ridley

 

Interesting Points

·       75% of homosexual males in San Fran had more than 100 sexual partners while 25% had more than 1, 000.

·       The Sun King of the Incas kept 1,500 women in his “House of Virgins” but they did not remain virgins for long.

·       The “Circle of Life”-- humans have gone in a huge circle from monogamy to polygamy back to monogamy and there is no logical explanation.

 

Weak Points

·       What did the game theory actually prove?

·       There was an inconsistent argument about the “environment of evolutionary adaptedness”.

·       The author failed to relate many of the animal examples to the human species.

 

Confusing Concepts

·       What exactly is socioecology?

·       Why doesn’t anybody really know why we went in a huge circle from monogamy to polygamy and then back to monogamy in Western societies today?

·       Why are there so few species in which the mating roles are reversed?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BRAIN

Chapter 8

“Making Sense of Sex”

David Barash, Ph.D. & Judith Lipton, M.D.

 

Interesting Points

·       Males may really be “without words for feeling”.

·       The difference or lack of differences between male and female spotted hyenas (male hormones).

·       Females are predisposed to motherhood. While male brains are predisposed to aggressiveness and sexual avidity.

 

Weak Points

·       Is there any explanation for “normal” levels of “tomboyishness” for girls and “sissyness” amongst boys?

·       Significance of women having more densely organized neurons?

·       Inconsistencies in test scores amongst boys and girls.

 

Confusing Concepts

·       “Central subdivision of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis”

·       INAH-3

·       What are the chances of having a child with one of these hormonal or chromosomal syndromes?